One of my favorite health tips drives my friends nuts when I start preaching about juicing!
Do you have enough time in your day to eat all the recommended fruits and vegetables that will keep you healthy and happy???
It's not easy! But my personal solution is MY JUICE MACHINE!
Look into getting a juicer for your own health boost! A juice machine is the best investment you can make for your health and happiness!
Cure Help has articles to help you discover information and tips about
While much of the information at Cure Help Health Tips can be beneficial and empowering, we'd just like to remind you that the suggestions found on this web site are intended for informational purposes only and are not medical advice.
How is breast cancer diagnosed and staged?
Once a patient has symptoms suggestive of a breast cancer or an abnormal screening mammogram, they will usually be referred for a diagnostic mammogram. A diagnostic mammogram is another set of x-rays; however, it is more complete with close ups on the suspicious areas. Sometimes, particularly if your doctors think that you may have a cyst or you are young and have dense breasts, you may be referred for an ultrasound. An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to outline the suspicious areas of the breast. It is painless and can often distinguish between benign and malignant lesions.
Depending on the results of the mammograms and/or ultrasounds, your doctors may recommend that you get a biopsy. A biopsy is the only way to know for sure if you have cancer, because it allows your doctors to get cells that can be examined under a microscope. There are different types of biopsies; they differ on how much tissue is removed. Some biopsies use a very fine needle, while others use thicker needles or even require a small surgical procedure to remove more tissue.
The pathologist will also test the cancer cells for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as a receptor known as HER-2/neu. The presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors is important because cancers that have those receptors can be treated with hormonal therapies. HER-2/neu expression may also help predict outcome. There are also some therapies directed specifically at tumors dependent on the presence of HER-2/nue.
In order to guide treatment and offer some insight into prognosis, breast cancer is staged into five different groups. This staging is done in a limited fashion before surgery taking into account the size of the tumor on mammogram and any evidence of spread to other organs that is picked up with other imaging modalities; and it is done definitively after a surgical procedure that removes lymph nodes and allows a pathologist to examine them for signs of cancer.
The staging system is somewhat complex, but here is a simplified version of it: Stage 0 (called carcinoma in situ) Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) refers to abnormal cells lining a gland in the breast. This is a risk factor for the future development of cancer, but this is not felt to represent a cancer itself. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to abnormal cells lining a duct. Women with DCIS have an increased risk of getting invasive breast cancer in that breast. Treatment options are similar to patients with Stage I breast cancers.
early stage breast cancer where the tumor is less that 2 cm across and hasn't spread beyond the breast
Stage II :
early stage breast cancer where the tumor is either less than 2 cm across and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm; or the tumor is between 2 and 5 cm (with or without spread to the lymph nodes under the arm); or the tumor is greater than 5 cm and hasn't spread outside the breast
locally advanced breast cancer where the tumor is greater than 5 cm across and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm; or the cancer is extensive in the underarm lymph nodes; or the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone or to other tissues near the breast
metastatic breast cancer where the cancer has spread outside the breast to other organs in the body Depending on the stage of your cancer, your doctor may want additional tests to see if you have metastatic disease. If you have a stage III cancer, you will probably get a chest x-ray, CT scan and bone scan to look for metastases. Each patient is an individual and your doctors will decide what is necessary to adequately stage your cancer.
What are the treatments for breast cancer?
Almost all women with breast cancer will have some type of surgery in the course of their treatment. The purpose of surgery is to remove as much of the cancer as possible, and there are many different ways that the surgery can be carried out. Some women will be candidates for what is called breast conservation therapy (BCT).
In BCT, surgeons perform a lumpectomy which means they remove the tumor with a little bit of breast tissue around it but do not remove the entire breast. BCT always needs to be combined with radiation therapy to make it an option for treating breast cancer. At the time of the surgery, the surgeon may also dissect the lymph nodes under the arm so the pathologist can review them for signs of cancer. Some patients will have a sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure first to determine if a formal lymph node dissection is required. Sometimes, the surgeon will remove a larger part (but not the whole breast), and this is called a segmental or partial mastectomy. This needs to be combined with radiation therapy as well. In early stage cancers (like stage I and II), BCT is as effective as removal of the entire breast via mastectomy.
Most patients with DCIS that have a lumpectomy are treated with radiation therapy to prevent the local recurrence of DCIS (although some of these DCIS patients may be candidates for close observation after surgery). The advantage of BCT is that the patient will not need a reconstruction or prosthesis to appear like she did before the procedure. More advanced breast cancers are usually treated with a modified radical mastectomy. Modified radical mastectomy means removing the entire breast and dissecting the lymph nodes under the arm. Patients with DCIS that have a mastectomy do not need to have the lymph nodes removed from under the arm. Some patients are candidates for BCT but choose modified radical mastectomy for personal reasons.
Your surgeon can discuss your options and the pros and cons of either procedure. Most women who have modified radical mastectomies choose to undergo a reconstruction. There are many different procedures for creating a new breast mound, and you should talk to your plastic surgeon before your surgery to discuss your options and decide on how you would like to proceed. For more information on breast reconstruction, see Breast Reconstructive Surgery Options.
Despite the fact that the tumors are removed by surgery, there is always a risk of recurrence because there may be microscopic cancer cells that have spread to distant sites in the body. In order to decrease a patient's risk of recurrence, many breast cancer patients are offered chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is the use of anti-cancer drugs that go throughout the entire body. The higher the stage of cancer you have, the more important it is that you receive chemotherapy; however, even stage I patients may benefit from chemotherapy in certain cases. In early stage patients, the risk of recurrence may be small, and thus the benefits of the chemotherapy are even smaller. However, the option to receive chemotherapy should be offered to most patients with breast cancer and they can decide if the potential benefits of chemotherapy outweigh its side effects in their own particular case.
There are many different chemotherapy drugs, and they are usually given in combinations for 3 to 6 months after you receive your surgery. Depending on the type of chemotherapy regimen you receive, you may get medication every 3 or 4 weeks; and you may have to go to a clinic to get the chemotherapy because many of the drugs have to be given through a vein. Two of the most common regimens are AC (doxorubicin and cycolphosphamide) for 3 months or CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) for 6 months.
There are advantages and disadvantages to each of the different regimens that your medical oncologist will discuss with you. Based on your own health, your personal values and wishes, and side effects you may wish to avoid, you can work with your doctors to come up with the best regimen for your lifestyle.
Sometimes patients have a recurrence of their cancer, or present in stage IV with disease outside of their breast. These patients will all need chemotherapy, and a variety of different agents may be tried until a response is achieved. Sometimes we give chemotherapy before surgery, and this is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This is usually reserved for very advanced cancers that need to be shrunken before they can be operated on.
Breast cancer commonly receives radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses high energy rays (similar to x-rays) to kill cancer cells. It comes from an external source, and it requires patients to come in 5 days a week for up to 6 weeks to a radiation therapy treatment center. The treatment takes just a few minutes, and it is painless. Radiation therapy is used in all patients who receive breast conservation therapy (BCT). It is also recommended for patients after a mastectomy who had large tumors, lymph node involvement, or close/positive margins after the surgery. Radiation is important in reducing the risk of local recurrence and is often offered in more advanced cases to kill tumor cells that may be living in lymph nodes. Your radiation oncologist can answer questions about the utility, process, and side effects of radiation therapy in your particular case.
When the pathologist examines your tumor specimen, he or she finds out if the tumor is expressing estrogen and progesterone receptors. Patients whose tumors express estrogen receptors are candidates for therapy with an estrogen blocking drug called Tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is taken by pill form for 5 years after your surgery. This drug has been shown to drastically reduce your risk of recurrence if your tumor expresses estrogen receptors. However, there are side effects commonly associated with Tamoxifen including weight gain, hot flashes and vaginal discharge that patients may be bothered by.
There are also very uncommon side effects like blood clots, strokes, or uterine cancer that may scare patients from choosing to take it. You need to remember that your chances of having a recurrence of your cancer are usually higher than your chances of having a serious problem with Tamoxifen, but the decision to undergo hormonal therapy is a personal one that you should make with your doctor. There are also newer drugs, called aromatase inhibitors that act by decreasing your body's supply of estrogen; these drugs are reserved for patients who have already gone through menopause. Talk to your doctors about these new therapies.
The pathologist also examines your tumor for the presence of HER-2/neu overexpression. HER-2/neu is a receptor that some breast cancers express. If your cancer expresses it, you usually have a higher chance of having your tumor recur after surgery. A compound called Herceptin (or Trastuzumab) is a substance that blocks this receptor and helps stop the breast cancer from growing. Some patients are candidates for this medicine. Talk to your medical oncologist to see if Herceptin is right for you.
Once a patient has been treated for breast cancer, they need to be closely followed for a recurrence. At first, you will have follow-up visits every 3-4 months. The longer you are free of disease, the less often you will have to go for checkups. After 5 years, you could see your doctor once a year. You should have a mammogram of the treated and untreated breasts every year. Because having had breast cancer is a risk factor for getting it again, having your mammograms done every year is extremely important. If you are taking Tamoxifen, it is important that you get a pelvic exam each year and report any abnormal vaginal bleeding to your doctor.
Clinical trials are extremely important in furthering our knowledge of this disease. It is though clinical trials that we know what we do today, and many exciting new therapies are currently being tested. Talk to your doctor about participating in clinical trials in your area.
This article is meant to give you a better understanding of breast cancer. Use this knowledge when meeting with your physician, making treatment decisions, and continuing your search for information. You can learn more about breast cancer on OncoLink through the related links mentioned in this article.
References The American Cancer Society All About Breast Cancer Overview www.cancer.org and www.your-breast-cancer.com
As always, before you attempt to self medicate or try a new health regimen or program we suggest you retain the services of a qualified health care professional.
Your Breast Cancer
What is breast cancer?
Breast cancer happens when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control and invade nearby tissue or spread throughout the body. Large collections of this out of control tissue are called tumors. Some tumors are not really cancer because they cannot spread or threaten someone's life. These are called benign tumors. The tumors that spread throughout the body or invade nearby tissue are considered cancer and are called malignant tumors. Theoretically, any of the types of tissue in the breast can form a cancer, but usually it comes from either the ducts or the glands. Because it may take months to years for a tumor to get large enough to feel in the breast, we screen for tumors with mammograms, which can sometimes see disease before we can feel it.
The lifetime risk of any particular woman getting breast cancer is about 1 in 8 although the lifetime risk of dying from breast cancer is much lower at 1 in 28.
Am I at risk for breast cancer?
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women in North America and Europe. Every woman is at risk for breast cancer. Risk factors for breast cancer can be divided into those that you cannot change and those that you can change. Some factors that increase your risk of breast cancer that you cannot alter include being a woman, getting older, having a family history (having a mother, sister, or daughter with breast cancer doubles your risk), having a previous history of breast cancer, having had radiation therapy to the chest region, being Caucasian, getting your periods young (before 12 years old), having your menopause late (after 50 years old), never having children or having them when you are older than 30, and having a genetic mutation that increases your risk.
Genetic mutations for breast cancer have become a hot topic of research lately. Between 3% to 10% of breast cancers may be related to changes in either the gene BRCA1 or the gene BRCA2. Women can inherit these mutations from their parents and it may be worth testing for either mutation if a woman has a particularly strong family history of breast cancer (meaning multiple relatives affected, especially if they are under 50 years old when they get the disease).
If a woman is found to carry either mutation, she has a 50% chance of getting breast cancer before she is 70. Family members may elect to get tested to see if they carry the mutation as well. If a woman does have the mutation, she can get more rigorous screening or even undergo preventive (prophylactic) mastectomies to decrease her chances of contracting cancer. The decision to get tested is a highly personal one that should be discussed with a doctor who is trained in counseling patients about genetic testing.
Certain factors which increase a woman's risk of breast cancer can be altered including taking hormone replacement therapy (long term use of estrogens with progesterone for menopause symptoms slightly increases your risk), taking birth control pills (a very slight increased risk that disappears in women who have stopped them for over 10 years), not breastfeeding, drinking 2 to 5 alcoholic drinks a day, being overweight (especially after menopause), and not exercising.
All of these modifiable risk factors are not nearly as important as gender, age, and family history, but they are things that a woman can control that may reduce her chances of developing a breast malignancy. Remember that all risk factors are based on probabilities, and even someone without any risk factors can still get breast cancer. Proper screening and early detection are our best weapons in reducing the mortality associated with this disease.
How can I prevent breast cancer?
The most important risk factors for the development of breast cancer cannot be controlled by the individual. There are some risk factors that are associated with an increased risk, but there is not a clear cause and effect relationship. In no way can strong recommendations be made like the cause and effect relationship seen with tobacco and lung cancer. There are a few risk factors that may be modified by a woman that potentially could influence the development of breast cancer. If possible, a woman should avoid long-term hormone replacement therapy, have children before age 30, breastfeed, avoid weight gain through exercise and proper diet, and limit alcohol consumption to 1 drink a day or less.
What screening tests are available?
The earlier breast cancer is found, the more likely it can be treated and cured. For this reason, we use mammograms, clinical breast exams, and breast self-exams. Screening mammograms are simply x-rays of each breast. The breast is placed between two plates for a few seconds while the x-rays are taken. If something appears abnormal, or better views are needed, magnified views or specially angled films are taken during the mammogram. Mammograms often detect tumors before they can be felt and they can also identify tiny specks of calcium that could be an early sign of cancer. Regular screening mammograms can decrease the mortality of breast cancer by 30%.
The majority of breast cancer cases are associated with abnormal mammographic findings. Woman should get a yearly mammogram starting at age 40 (although some groups recommend starting at 50), and women with a genetic mutation that increases their risk or a strong family history may want to begin even earlier. Between the ages of 20 and 39, every woman should have a clinical breast exam every 3 years; and after age 40 every woman should have a clinical breast exam done each year. A clinical breast exam is an exam done by a health professional to feel for lumps and look for changes in the size or shape of your breasts. During the clinical breast exam, you can learn how to do a breast self-exam. Every woman should do a self breast exam once a month, about a week after her period ends. If you find any changes in your breasts, you need to contact your doctor.
What are the signs of breast cancer?
Unfortunately, the early stages of breast cancer may not have any symptoms. This is why it is important to follow screening recommendations.
As a tumor grows in size, it can produce a variety of symptoms including:
* lump or thickening in the breast or underarm
* change in size or shape of the breast
* nipple discharge or nipple turning inward
* redness or scaling of the skin or nipple
* ridges or pitting of the breast skin
If you experience these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean you have breast cancer, but you need to be examined by a doctor.
Please Vist www.your-breast-cancer.com for more information.
Shopping, meals and holidays are just some of the items we put on our credit cards. But credit card spending does not have to be selfish. Credit card holders can use their credit cards to support worthwhile causes such as charities. There are several ways of doing this. Credit card owners can donate to different charities using their credit cards or they can choose a charity credit card to give their chosen charity a donation every time they spend.
The first is a lump sum donation given to a charity when someone first takes out a charity card. Additional lump sums may be donated if people keep the card or continue to spend on the credit card. The second method is to donate a percentage of the money spent by the cardholder to the chosen charity. This can range from 0.25% to 1% of the amount spent, depending on the deal and the card chosen.
Giving To Cancer Charities
Cancer is a major killer in industrialised nations and so it is hardly surprising that a number of charities have launched their own credit cards to help their charity efforts. Many of these are supported by large banks. Cancer Research UK is the UK's largest cancer charity. The organisation's credit card is supported by Halifax and works like other Halifax cards. There is no annual fee and the card offers a low balance transfer fee for six months. Halifax donates 0.25% of money spent on the card to Cancer Research UK. Another cancer charity has raised £1,000,000 with its charity card. The Breakthrough Breast Cancer Charity Card is sponsored by MBNA. The purchase donation is the same as that offered by the Cancer Research credit card. However, MBNA also offers an additional donation for online applications.
Other Ways Of Giving To Charity
Charity credit cards work well for those who spend regularly on their credit cards. A donation rate of 0.25% means that 25 pence of every £100 spent goes to the charity. Some people may find that donating the proceeds of a cash back credit card (which gives more than 0.5% of annual spending in a lump sum each year) may be another good way to help a charity.
As with other credit cards it is worth looking around for the best credit card deals for charity cards. Many charity cards offer 0% balance transfer rates and purchase rates for fixed periods. Some offer low standard interest rates as well.
There are many websites that offer comparisons of credit cards and charity credit cards. The sites look at balance transfer and purchase rates, introductory offers, standard interest rates and other incentives for credit card buyers. Shopping around allows people to get the best deal for themselves and still contribute to a good cause.
The symptoms of menopause are akin to labor pains in that they feel like they will go on forever, yet they herald the birth of new life. In fact, whilst perimenopause lasts a lot longer - from 5 to 10, or up to 13 years, it is not an indicator of how 'life will be'. Menopause is a time of growth and adaptation, and our bodies are an intimate part of the journey. The symptoms associated with menopause intimately reflect the flux of the body's hormonal systems.
Menopause can be extremely disruptive, however. Whether it's sleeplessness, menopause related depression, hot flushes, vaginal dryness, or emotional swings, the good news is that these symptoms can be alleviated. A good menopause treatment will help many seemingly diverse symptoms, as they are all related to the root hormonal flux in the body. HRT is one choice, popular with doctors, and one that many women have found extremely useful. But what is often not understood, is that there are different types of hormone replacement therapy, even amongst those prescribed by doctors. Premarin is one of the best well know, and oldest, types of hormone treatment.
Premarin is made from the urine of pregnant horses, and is an estrogen only hormonal pill. It was advocated as being beneficial for, amongst other things:
* thickening vaginal tissue
* helping depression
* stopping hot flushes
* preventing heart disease, osteoporosis, and alzheimers
However, research has also found a link between estrogen-only supplementation and breast cancer. The cells in the breasts and the uterus are responsive to estrogen. So to add estrogen in, without the checks and balances intrinsic to our normal hormonal system, can stimulate the growth of this tissue.
What many believed was a mitigating factor in premarin's favor was the belief that it helped prevent heart disease. This presumption was based on the fact that premarin lowered LDL cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol had earlier been identified as a risk in developing heart disease. However, this belief has been found to be unsupported in several large clinical trials. In one involving women who had heart disease, those taking premarin (in combination with a synthetic form of progesterone which was given with premarin to prevent endometrial cancer), these women actually significantly increased their risk of having another heart attack in the first year of use. This risk leveled off after that, but it didn't provide any heart protective effects.
In a study with healthy women, hormone replacement with premarin, with or without a synthetic progesterone supplement, did not decrease the risk of heart attacks or heart disease. Another drawback to premarin and other hormone replacement therapies is the way they are often prescribed, in a kind of 'one size fits all' way, irrespective of a woman's size or medical history. But the news is not all bad with HRT therapies. When premarin was developed, there was not the ability amongst scientists to produce other types of estrogen. Because the estrogen in horses is not natural in women, side effects like bloating, headaches, and sore breasts are common.
And because the breakdown products of estrogen from horses are so strong, actually more active in the body than the original horse estrogen, they have a pronounced effect on estrogen sensitive tissues, such as the breast. And given that numerous studies have shown that these metabolic by-products can produce changes in the DNA of cells that are carcinogenic to living tissue, it is no surprise that the incidence of breast cancer increases when women take premarin.
But there are alternatives. Bioidentical hormones are developed from soy beans or yams, and their chemical structure is designed to reflect that which is found in women's bodies. Further, bioidentical hormones are not usually given in a standardized, 'one size fits all' dose, but tailored to a woman's presenting history. They are generally given at low doses, and because chemically they behave more like regular estrogen, they are not associated with the side effects of premarin, although they have not been used in the large scale studies that premarin has.
References: Dr Christiane Northrup, The Wisdom Of Menopause
Epidemiology Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the second most common (after lung cancer) cause of death in this group. However, to some extent, it concerns men as well.Different countries in the world have varying incidence of breast cancer. The West Europe countries and the USA have the highest incidence rates, adequately 35-60/100 000 and 65/100 000, whereas the Far East countries have the lowest rate (i.e. in Japan it is five times lower than in the USA).
Once the tissue is removed, a doctor known as a pathologist will review the specimen. The pathologist can tell if it is cancer or not; and if it is cancerous, then the pathologist will characterize it by what type of tissue it arose from, how abnormal it looks (known as the grade), whether or not it is invading surrounding tissues, and if the entire lump was excised, the pathologist can tell if there are any cancer cells left at the borders (also known as the margins).
Risk factors Risk factors point to increased risk, that is at higher probability of falling ill among specimens of a given population. The most important risk factors include:
1. Woman's age Incidence of breast cancer increases with age.
2. Ethnic/geographical factors These factors, although they have been taken into consideration for years, are extremely difficult to interpret. High breast cancer incidence occurs in the USA and in West Europe, low - in Asian, Far East and African countries. Breast cancer is usually developed in Caucasian women living in a quite cold climate in the highly developed countries. It is dependent upon the influence of the following factors: race, climate, nutrition style, types of the undergone diseases, lifestyle and culture style, family planning, age of the first pregnancy, number of children, breastfeeding's popularity, etc. Black and yellow women become ill more rarely.
3. Family factors The more affected relatives and the closer degree of kinship to them, the bigger probability of suffering from cancer. The risk increases, if these tumours occurred in one's mother and sister under the age of 35 . Genetically determined breast cancer, which amounts to 10% of all the breast tumours, most often being the result of BRCA1, BRCA2, p53 and ATM genes mutation. Breast cancer can also occur in the course of some inheritably associated syndromes, among others in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Lynch II syndrome, Cowden's disease, Peutz-Jaeghers syndrome, ataxia-teleangiectasia, Klinefelter syndrome
4. Age of first menstruation and menopause Appearance of first menses before the age of 12 significantly increases (by about 40%) the risk of breast cancer. Natural menopause appearing after age 55 increases risk of breast cancer twofold. Thus, the most important factor is the total number of years of ovulation activity.
5. Age of first pregnancy and delivery Women who give birth to their first child in the age of between 20 and 30 have a lower risk of breast cancer. Nulliparous women are more exposed to breast cancer, by almost 50%.
6. Breastfeeding Women with much lower risk of falling ill protected from breast cancer development by breastfeeding. Even relatively short time of breastfeeding gives some protection
7. Ionising radiation High doses of X radiation (applied during routine "X-rays") can cause breast cancer. It is worth to stress that the contemporary mammography apparati expose a woman to a minimal dose of radiation.
8. Alcohol and diet Excessive alcohol consumption for a long period of time increases the risk of breast cancer development, because the liver damage impairs estrogen metabolism (high estrogen concentration increases the risk of falling ill). It is suspected that one of the factors, which increases the breast cancer risk, is food with high content of saturated fat
9. Obesity Obesity increases the risk of breast cancer development, as it is more difficult to find breast changes in obese people . moreover, fat cells produce estrogens
10. Exogenous hormones (hormone contraceptives) It is believed that oral contraceptives (which include mainly estrogens), even if they are connected with breast cancer, act as a factor facilitating and accelerating the development of the disease, which has already appeared, rather than a factor causing genetic mutations and evoking disease. It is also believed that pills that are made only of progesterone and so called ,,minipills" don't increase the breast cancer risk. The pills may increase the risk in genetically loaded women or women using oral contraceptives for at least 8 years until first pregnancy. It is believed that preparations which include progesterone alone, don't affect the risk for breast cancer appearance.
However, preparations that include progesterone and estrogens may influence the tumour appearance. The risk is growing for women taking hormone medications longer than 8 years. Treatment Breast cancer is treated locally or generally, although some patients may undergo both types of treatment. Local treatment consists in surgical removal or destruction of the lesion. General treatment (chemotherapy, hormone therapy) aims at inhibiting the tumour process or decreasing the size of tumour before operation and it is also applied in significant disease progression instead of surgery.
Surgical treatment is the most common way to treat breast cancer. Patients in I0 and II0 clinical progression are qualified for the surgical treatment . The most often performed surgery is the modified breast amputation by Patey's way (excision of the breast gland together with the axillary lymph nodes, without removing the breast muscles). Some patients are qualified for breast conserving treatment.
Such possibility exists in the following cases:
-1M0 (tumour not bigger than 3cm in a mammographic measurement)
- Possibility of removing the tumour with a margin of healthy tissue
- Satisying cosmetic effect foreseen
- Patient's consent to breast conserving treatment
- The lack of contraindications
The absolute contraindications include:
1. Multicentric cancer
2. Cancer relapse after the previous breast conserving treatment
3. Previous undergoing of breast irradiation
4. No possibility of getting the margin of healthy tissue
The relative contraindications include:
2. Foreseen unsatisfying cosmetic effect
3. Connective tissue disease (collagenosis)
Breast Conserving Treatment (BCT) includes replacing tumour within healthy tissues and regional axillary lymph nodes. The following ways of breast tumour removal are distinguished: - tylectomy - removing the tumour with a margin of at least 2cm. If the margin from the muscles' side is smaller than cm, the tumour must be removed together with fascia, - wide excision, lumpectomy - removing the tumour together with the bulk unchanged tissues margin of 1 cm. This margin can be smaller from the muscles side, but then fascia has to be removed. - excisional biopsy, tumourectomy - removing the tumour without margin, but with the intention of removing all the bulk suspected tissues. After BCT surgery, all patients are exposed to supplementing radiotherapy. Breast gland is irradiated with a total dose of 50 Gy, 2 Gy per fraction (25 fractions during 5 weeks). Additionally, the site of tumour removal is afterloaded with 192 Ir with the 10 Gy dose.
Radiotherapy - uses high energy radiation to destroy the cancer cells and to prevent them from further growth and fissions. There are two kinds of radiotherapy: exterior (source of radiation is located outside the human body) and interior (special containers with the radiation material are placed in the tumour site). Another kind of radiotherapy is brachytherapy which involves placing thin tubes in breast. The radiation is directed through these tubes straight to the tumour cells. Nowadays brachytherapy is applied after breast conserving treatment. It happens that radiotherapy is applied before surgery to decrease the size of tumour and/or to facilitate the tumour removal.
Chemotherapy involves the application of medicines that are aimed at tumour destruction. In breast cancer chemotherapy is usually composed of a few types of medicines, which are administered either directly to vein or in the form of pills. Regardless of the way of administering, the medicines get inside blood and flow with it through the whole body, which also results in negative effects for this therapy (nausea, vomiting, hair falling out, neutropenia, menstruation disorder, earlier menopause).
Radoslaw Pilarski is a PhD candidate working on anticancer properties of Uncaria tomentosa - http://www.uncariatomentosa.com - at PAS, Poland. mLingua Worldwide Translations, Ltd. - http://mlingua.pl - provides professional language translations.
Asbestos Cancer - The major causes of breast cancer are obesity and overweight. The effect of obesity on breast cancer risk is based on a woman's menopausal status.
Avon Breast Cancer - Today, carcinoma is the medical term for a malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells. It is Celsus who translated carcinos into the Latin cancer, also meaning crab. Galen used "oncos" to describe all tumours, the root for the modern word oncology.
Lung Cancer Risks - When it comes to cancer prevention and treatment, your bodys first defense is your best. A type of white blood cell called Natural Killer cells, may hold the key to the growth and spread of cancers.
Diagnosing Rheumatoid Arthritis - Prescription medications are a treatment option that is often used to treat arthritis. There are always potential side effects that can occur and you need to be aware of what these side effects are so always check with your doctor.
Dental Teeth Whitening - Professional teeth whitening is becoming the increasingly popular choice for anybody with stained teeth. Yes, you can buy over the counter remedies, but if you want to guarantee whiter teeth now, then professional teeth whitening is the best option.Professional teeth whitening does not produce different results from the 'at-home' products you can buy, but there are distinct advantages.
Bed Wetting Products - Wetting the bed is more than just a problem that happens to a child that has a solution. As a parent of a child that is having this problem, it is up to you to insure that the condition is taken care of by the doctor. In other words, you will want to insure that the wet bed is not going to harm things like their personality and their self esteem.
Bone Cancer - When the bone cancer originates in the bone itself, it is categorised as primary bone cancer and when it spreads from a cancer elsewhere in the body it is known as secondary bone cancer.
Breast Cancer Awareness - Asbestos Cancer Mesothelioma is a malignant disease to take a lot of lifes each year, many people concentrate their effort in to know o find out a cure for this disease, and in other economic aspect of the asbestos, such as money compensation.
Acid Reflux Treating - Some medical conditions have no respect for age; the young or the old, and Acid Reflux, also known in medical terms as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) seems to be one of them. The lower end of the esophagus is protected by a valve called the Lower Esophageal sphincter (LES). This valve opens to allow food from the esophagus into the stomach and then closes up to protect the esophagus from the acid content of the stomach. Several conditions can compromise this valve, allowing gastric content into the esophagus.
More coming soon!
Cure Help Just Added
Malnutrition Related Diabetes - Brewer’s yeast is a wonder food. It is rich in traces of mineral chromium. This mineral helps the pancreas produce more insulin. It is one of the best supports for normal handling of sugar by the body. According to an article by Dr. Richard J. Doisy and others, which appeared in the Medical World News, Brewer’s yeast has lowered the insulin requirements of many diabetes patients.
Home Teeth Whitening - A smile on a face is worth more than money. It can create magic. But discolored teeth can hamper this magic. So often we get anxious about our bad teeth, especially when we see that our teeth are loosing their shine and white look. But not any more. Science has helped us to solve this problem by providing us the technique of artificially whitening our teeth, called Tooth whitening.
Newest Articles from the Health Tips Blog
Newest Articles from the Hulda Clark Information Blog - zappers, detox, liver and kidney cleanses and more!
Cure Help Featured Article Topics
Acid Reflux - articles, tips and information about Acid Reflux
Allergies - Allergies can be cured in many cases!
Anti-Aging - Anti aging health tips!
Arthritis - Arthritis cures and suggestions on how to reduce pain
Bed Wetting - Bed Wetting can be cured fast with the right approach
Cancer - Cancer is a major concern as our world gets more polluted
Cholesterol - Cholesterol is an important health concern
Depression - Depression cures can improve your state of mind
Diabetes - Diabetes may not be cured, but there are many tips to make life better!
Hair Loss - Hair Loss is a major concern for both men and women
Lasik Surgery - Lasik Surgery is an increasingly popular option to cure eye problems
Natural Cures - There are many natural cures to improve health and ailments
Nutrition - What you need to know about Nutrition and your health
Plastic Surgery - Plastic Surgery is an option to change your appearance
Skin Care - Skin Care is a major concern for children, men and women
Vitamins, Herbs & Supplements - Health tips about Vitamins, Herbs and Supplements
Stop Smoking Cigarettes - Tips for stopping cigarette smoking... yuck!
Teeth Whitening - all about dental methods and teeth whitening
Weight Loss - articles about losing weight and improving your body image.
A Recent Article from the Web
Looking for something specific? We're proud to offer Google Search for both the web AND so you can find content on our web site! Simply type in a few words and select web or our site and we'll help you find exactly what you are looking for! Happy hunting!
New on Cure Help Health Tips! Weight Loss Articles at the Healthy Living Blog
Hot! Just added to Cure Help Health Tips!
Skin Care Issues - More and more people are turning to natural skin care products to enrich and beautify their bodies. There are over 5000 chemicals that can be found in creams, moisturizers and other commercial brands.
Hair Loss Products - Everyone has hair all over his or her body. For a lot of people, they have unwanted facial hair growth that seems to grow darker and thicker over the years. These people would do anything to make this problem go away completely or at least cover it up.
Cure Help Legal Disclaimer: Cancer articles, news, tips and information presented as a public service. Cure Help offers information for entertainment and educational purposes. None of the viewpoints or tips and suggestions presented in the articles are endorsed by Cure Help. Please consult a health care practitioner (your doctor) before applying any cure tips,advice or suggestions. We care about your health! Be smart and get several opinions before you implement any changes in your life! Please consult the FDA Compliancy Policy Guide for information on drugs and standards.
New Cure Help Health Tips Articles - Just Added!